The Path-Goal Theory of Robert House
says that a leader can affect the performance, satisfaction, and
motivation of a group by:
- Offering rewards for achieving
- Clarifying paths towards these goals,
- Removing obstacles to performance.
However, whether leadership behavior can do so effectively also depends
on situational factors.
According to House, there are four different types of
leadership styles depending on the situation:
- Directive Leadership: The leader gives specific
guidance of performance to subordinates.
- Supportive Leadership: The leader is friendly and shows
concern for the subordinates.
- Participative Leadership: The leader consults with
subordinates and considers their suggestions.
- Achievement-oriented Leadership: The leader sets high
goals and expects subordinates to have high-level performance.
The Situational Factors of the Path-Goal Theory are:
I) Subordinates' Personality:
A Locus of Control (A participative leader is suitable
for subordinates with internal locus of control; A directive leader is
suitable for subordinates with external locus of control).
B Self-perceived ability (Subordinates who perceive
themselves as having high ability do not like directive leadership).
II) Characteristics of the environment:
- When working on a task that has a high structure,
directive leadership is redundant and less effective.
- When a highly formal authority system is in place,
directive leadership can again reduce workers' satisfaction.
- When subordinates are in a team environment that
offers great social support, the supportive leadership style becomes
Compare with Path-Goal Theory:
| 4 Dimensions
of Relational Work | Hierarchy of Needs
Oriented Management |
Herzberg Two Factor
Competing Values Framework |
Theory X Theory Y | Change
Seven Habits |
More management models